Fossilized palm wood, sometimes referred to as Palmoxylon, is a type of extinct palm that was formerly widespread throughout the world. From the Late Cretaceous (83 million years ago) until the Early Miocene, plants were present (34 million years ago). The fossilized rod-like features that were formerly present in the original wood give palmwood its speckled appearance. They appear as dots, tapering rods, or lines depending on the angle at which the stone is cut. Over time, silicate minerals take the place of organic wood cells during the fossilization process.
A rare gemstone consisting of hard vitreous magnesium aluminum oxide or magnesium aluminate, black spinel is a rare gemstone. Black spinel, in particular, is a true gemstone and one of the rarest minerals in the Spinel family, sometimes confused with black tourmaline.
By: Kate Wells